Early History of Movies:
The concept of film goes back to Leonardo da Vinci; in the 1400s he theorized a device that could be created to reproduce reality. Some of the pre cursors to film include the “magic lantern”, which projected images that were painted on a glass plate and used an oil lamp as the source of light. In 1824, the “thaumatrope” consisted of a double-sided card that had two images and spun. Ten years later the zoetrope was created which was a cylindrical device with slits cut into it and rapidly spun images to make it seem as if it were moving.
Eadweard Muybridge, was an English photographer that was credited with making the first images move. He would use multiple cameras to take pictures of people and animals in motion. By 1800, he developed a way to project it for public viewing.
1884, George Eastman, the founder of Kodak developed the first film roll which was an improvement on the heavy glass plates previously used for individual photos.
1989 was Hannibal Goodwin’s celluloid; it enabled motion pictures to be created.
1896 Edison’s vitascope popularizes large screen projection in the US.
1907 "Nickleodeons" store front movie theaters 5 cents admission price flourished in the US.
1920 movie studio systems control of production, distribution and exhibition of movies.
1927 sound comes to movies
1967 the motion picture association of America initiates the first rating system for age appropriateness.
1977 VHS and VCR hit the consumer market creating a movie rental and purchasing industry.
1997 DVDs were introduced
Early 2000s is when the digital film production begins.
2008 Blu-ray succeed the DVDs, home exhibition moves to online streaming
2012 3D is introduced again from the red and blue glasses.
Evolution of Hollywood
1910s movies have become a major industry. Entrepreneurs have done everything in their power to monopolize, by controlling production distribution and exhibition. Hollywoods Golden Age started in 1915 when they created numerous classics. "Birth of a Nation" was the first feature length film (extremely racist and glorifies the Kkk). 1915 was also the silent era. In 1927 was the introduction of sound. This pushed the annual attendance from 60 million a week to 90 million which was huge considering there are 300 million people living in the US today.
By 1931, nearly 85 percent of America’s 20,000 theaters accommodated sound pictures known as "talkies". By 1935 the rest of the world adopted it as it became the commercial standard unlike in the 1920s, films made in other countries constitute less than 2 percent of motion pictures seen in the US.
Documentaries is when directors interpret reality by recording real people and settings. Documentaries evolved from several earlier types of nonfictional movies; including: interest films (which contained things like war, political leaders, industrial workers, and agricultural scenes) also news reals, and travelogues ( which is a depiction of everyday lives in other communities around the world.
Independent films are not connected to any major production studios and typically have smaller budgets and show in independent theaters and campuses.
The introduction of television as a piece of technological advancement was a major strike back against the motion pictures industry by the way.
The ways in which movies make money is through box office sales; DVD/ video sales and rentals; Cable and television outlets; foreign distribution; independent film distribution; licensing and product placement.
However, you have to spend money to make money. Movies pay for production; marketing, advertising, and print; post production; distribution; exhibition; acquisitions.
I believe today, the motion pictures industries biggest challenge is the internet; mainly piracy. Outlets such as Apples ITunes and Netflix among many other online digital movie distributors all are ways in which the movie industry has tried to adapt. However, as technology advances and ticket prices go up, people are going to want to run to the internet to watch what they want, not the theaters.